Mengenang Kembali Riwayat Hongkong dan Jepang dalam Kapitalisme Asia abad ke-19 dan ke-20

Saiful Hakam

Abstract


Ada dua “tradisi besar” dalam perkembangan kapitalisme di Asia Timur dan Tenggara pada abad kesembilan belas bersamaan dengan terbukanya Asia Timur pada ekonomi global. Dua tradisi besar tersebut adalah model Jepang dan model China Hongkong. Keduanya berhasil dalam mengorganisasi dan membangun ekonom.  Model Jepang adalah model ekonomi politik korporasi (mode of corporatized political economy) sedangkan model China adalah model kemandirian kaum pengusaha (mode of entrepreneurial deal-making). Dua model organisasi ekonomi tersebut membawa pada dua perkembangan dan lintasan sejarah yang berbeda. Model China dan Jepang dalam membangun ekonomi pada abad kesembilan belas melontarkan dua perbedaan dalam pembangunan ekonomi. Meskipun mengalami perubahan signifikan pasca Perang Dunia Kedua namun kedua model tersebut tumbuh kembali pada pertengahan kedua abad kedua puluh.


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